John Churchill

Male 1650 - 1722  (71 years)


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  • Name John Churchill 
    Born 24 Jun 1650  Ashe Devon Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 16 Jun 1722  Cranbourne Lodge Windsor Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 9 Aug 1722  Palace of Westminster Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I1292  My Genealogy
    Last Modified 3 Jan 2019 

    Father Winston Churchill,   d. UNKNOWN 
    Mother Elizabeth Drake,   d. UNKNOWN 
    Family ID F460  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Sarah Jenyns,   b. 5 Jun 1660,   d. 18 Oct 1744  (Age 84 years) 
    Married 1 Oct 1678 
    Last Modified 3 Jan 2019 
    Family ID F459  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough was born on 24 June 1650 at Ashe, Devon, England. He was the son of Sir Winston Churchill and Elizabeth Drake. He was baptised on 28 June 1650 at Axminster, Devon, England. He married Sarah Jenyns, daughter of Richard Jenyns and Frances Thornhurst, on 1 October 1678.4 He died on 16 June 1722 at age 71 at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor, Berkshire, England. He was buried on 9 August 1722 at Palace of Westminster, Westminster, London, England. His will (dated 19 March 1721/2) was proven (by probate) on 6 July 1722, "bequeathing as heirlooms at Blenheim the gold plate with the Elector of Hanover's arms engraved theron, and the diamond sword given to him by the Emperor". He was buried in 1744 at Chapel, Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, in accordance with his will.
      He was educated at St. Paul's School, London, England. He gained the rank of officer in 1667 in the Army (Foot Guards). He held the office of Page of Honour to James, Duke of York in 1667. He and Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland were associated circa 1668. He fought in the campaign in Tangiers between 1668 and 1671. He fought in the campaigns in Flanders from 1672 to 1673, under the Duke of Monmouth. He held the office of Gentleman of the Bedchamber to James, Duke of York in 1673. He fought in the Battle of Enzheim in 1674, under the command of the French under Vicomte de Turenne.7 He held the office of Master of the Wardrobe in 1679.3 He held the office of Member of Parliament (M.P.) for Newtown, Isle of Wight between February 1679 and July 1679. He was created 1st Lord Churchill of Eyemouth, co. Berwick [Scotland] on 21 December 1682. He gained the rank of Colonel in 1683 in the Royal Dragoons. He held the office of Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1683 to 1691. He gained the rank of Colonel in November 1683 in the Royal Regiment of Dragoons. He held the office of Ambassador to France from March 1685 to April 1685. He was created 1st Baron Churchill of Sandridge, co. Hertford [England] on 14 May 1685. He fought in the Battle of Sedgemoor in June 1685, where he defeated the rebels under the Duke of Monmouth. He gained the rank of Lieutenant-General in 1688.8 On 24 November 1688 he was one of the first to desert the King, using his hatred of Popery as his excuse, supporting the accession of the Prince and Princess of Orange. Gibbs quotes Chesteron, "Churchill, as if to add something ideal to his imitation of Iscariot, went to James with wanton professions of love and loyalty, went forth in arms as if to defend the country from invasion, and then calmly handed over the country to the invader." He fought in the Battle of Walcourt in 1689, where his Dutch force defeated the French under Marshal d'Humeri?res. He held the office of Gentleman of the Bedchamber from 1689 to 1692. He was appointed Privy Counsellor (P.C.) on 14 February 1688/89.8 He was created 1st Earl of Marlborough, co. Wilts [England] on 9 April 1689.8 He gained the rank of commander in 1690 in the the English forces in the Netherlands. In 1692 he was dismissed from most of his posts, for well grounded suspicion of intrigues with the exiled King James II, as well as, according to Evelyn, for 'his excessive taking of bribes, covetousness, and extortion on all occasions, from his inferior officers.4' He held the office of Cabinet Minister in 1698.4 He held the office of Master of the Horse from 1698 to 1700.He gained the rank of Commander-in-Chief in June 1701 in the British and Dutch forces in the Netherlands. He held the office of Master General of the Ordnance in 1702. He held the office of Ambassador to The Hague in 1702. He gained the rank of Captain General in 1702 in the English forces at home and abroad, as well as Generalissmo of the Allied forces. He was appointed Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) on 14 March 1701/2. He was created 1st Marquess of Blandford [England] on 14 December 1702. He was created 1st Duke of Marlborough [England] on 14 December 1702. He fought in the Battle of Donauwerth on 2 June 1704 at Donauw?rth, Bayern, Germany, against the Bavarians, whom he defeated. He fought in the Battle of Blenheim on 13 August 1704 at Blindheim, Germany, against the French, whom he soundly defeated. He was created Prince John of the Holy Roman Empire on 28 August 1704, by Emperor Leopold. On 28 January 1704/5 he was granted the manor of Woodstock (about 22,000 acres), and the hundred of Wotton in Oxfordshire, where he subsequently built Blenheim Palace. The total cost of this Palace was ?300,000, of which only ?60,000 was spent by the Marlboroughs, with the balance from the Civil List. He fought in the Battle of Tirlemont on 18 July 1705 at Tirlemont He was created Prince John of Mindleheim [Holy Roman Empire]| by the Emperor Joseph, which he subsequently exchanged in 1713 for the Principality of Mellenburg on 18 November 1705. He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Oxfordshire from 1706 to 1712. He fought in the Battle of Ramilles on 23 May 1706 at Ramilles On 21 December 1706 he obtained an Act of Parliament to allow his title of Duke of Marlborough (and subsidiary titles) to descend through his four daughters to their male and female heirs. He fought in the Battle of Oudenarde on 11 July 1708 at Oudenaarde, Belgium He fought in the Battle of Malplaquet on 11 September 1709 at Malplaquet He fought in the Battle of Arluex on 5 August 1711 at Arleux, France He fought in the Battle of Bouchain on 13 September 1711 at Bouchain, FranceG.4 On 30 December 1711 he was again dismissed from most of his offices, although with the accession of George II, he was restored to most them in 1714. Jesse writes, "a commission, appointed to examine into the public accounts, reported that among other evidences of corruption and abuse, there was full proof of the Duke having received in the shape of a bribe an annual present of ?5,000 or ?6,000 from the contractors of bread for the army." In 1713 he exchanged the Principality of Mindleheim in Swabia for the county of Mellenburg (then erected into a Principality) in Upper Austria.


      Cockayne quotes Macky, "The Duke of York's love for [Arabella Churchill] his sister [by whom he was father of the Duke of Berwick and other children] first brought him to Court, and the beauty of his own person and his good address so gained on the Duchess of Cleveland [then mistress to Charles II] that she effectually established him there." Cockayne also claims, "he is said to have intrigued with the said Duchess and to have received large sums of money from her."

      On his death, the Lordship of Churchill of Eyemouth became extinct. He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.

      Source: www.thepeerage.com

      http://www.thepeerage.com/p10539.htm#i105385





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